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Anatomy and Physiology Resource Guide

Use this guide to discover relevant resources for anatomy and physiology. Know of a great anatomy resource that's not included here? Let us know!

Citing Sources in MLA and APA

It's essential to give credit when you use the work of others. This gives credibility to your work, contributes positively to the academic community, and helps you avoid plagiarism. In academic writing and research, we usually use a specific set of standard guidelines such as those developed by the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).

Visit the quick guides below to get started with citing sources:

Attribution Best Practices for OER

When using media for presentations, even if it is an openly licensed resource, we still need to give proper attribution to the creator. With Creative Commons licenses, attribution is actually a requirement of use.

Citing and Providing Attribution for Openly Licensed Content

There are several different ways to cite and provide attribution for openly licensed content correctly. You could choose to follow the common TASL format or to adhere to the style used in your course or discipline (such as APA or MLA). Just be sure to include all the necessary information and stay consistent.

TASL Format

A commonly accepted attribution format in the open community is the TASL acronym. It's a bit less specific than APA or MLA format, but every attribution should have the following components and answer each question in italics. Where possible, link to the original components and do include any additional information if it feels relevant or useful.

Title (T) - What is the name of the material?

Author (A) - Who owns the material?

Source (S) - Where can I find it?

License (L) - How can I use it?

This image of cupcakes on a green table is often used in attribution best practice examples.

Example* of Best Practices for Attribution Using TASL:

"Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco" by tvol is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

Title? "Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco"
Author? "tvol" - linked to his profile page
Source? "Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco" - linked to original Flickr page
License? "CC BY 2.0" - linked to license deed

*This example is from the Best Practices for Attribution page on the Creative Commons wiki. It's used with permission thanks to a CC BY 4.0 international license.

It is also possible to use the MLA or APA format to cite content and provide appropriate attribution. Just include the license after the correct MLA or APA citation, as shown in the examples below.

APA Style

APA Style References Example (7th Edition) 

Vollmer, T. (2012, December 8). Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/sixteenmilesofstring/8256206923/in/set-72157632200936657. CC BY 2.0 license.

APA Style Attribution / In-Text Example (7th Edition) 

T. Vollmer, 2012 (https://www.flickr.com/photos/sixteenmilesofstring/8256206923/in/set-72157632200936657). CC BY 2.0.

MLA Style

MLA Style Works Cited Example (8th Edition)

Vollmer, Timothy. "Creative Commons 10th Birthday Celebration San Francisco." Flickr, 8 Dec. 2012, https://www.flickr.com/photos/sixteenmilesofstring/8256206923/in/set-72157632200936657. CC BY 2.0 license.


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