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Citing Sources in APA 7

A quick guide to help you cite sources in APA 7.

In-Text Citations

As a writer, you will use in-text citations to indicate where you used words, ideas, or information that came from another source. You include information about the source in parentheses to give the reader clues about the original author and source. 

The video below provides an overview of how to use and construct in-text citations. 

Video Source:  APA In-Text Citations by Excelsior Online Writing Lab, 2020 ( CC BY. Note: video transcript available on original site. 

Examples of In-Text Citations:

Lei (2015) argues that "the hours between classes are perhaps students’ most valuable study time; yet, ironically, the most frequently misused" (p. 196).

Many students find it helpful to schedule regular study time for each class every week so that studying becomes a predictable part of their weekly routine (Lei, 2015, p. 196).

In-Text Citation Format Examples

APA In-Text Citation Formats, Narrative and Parenthetical

Narrative in-text citation​

Parenthetical citation​

1 Author​

Nastasi (2020)​

(Nastasi, 2020)​

2 Authors​ Lockwood and Porter (2022)​ (Lockwood & Porter, 2022)​
3 or More Authors​ Holmefur et al. (2019) ​ (Holmefur et al., 2019)​

Organizational Author​

National Institute of Health (2021)​

(National Institute of Health, 2021)​


M. Thomas (personal communication, February 15, 2023)​

(M. Thomas, personal communication, February 15, 2023)​

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